Testing and Adjusting
Troubleshooting can be difficult. A list of possible problems
and probable causes is on the pages that follow.
This list of problems and probable causes will only give an
indication of where a problem can be and what repairs are
needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed
beyond the recommendations on the list. Remember that a
problem is not necessarily caused only by one part, but by the
relation of one part with other parts. This list cannot give all
possible problems and probable causes. The serviceman
must find the problem and its source, then make the necessary
The 4C4892 ORFS Fittings Group can be used to make
pressure tests of the steering system. Before any tests are
made, visually inspect the complete hydraulic system for
leakage of oil and for parts that are damaged. For some of the
tests a magnet and a mm (in) measuring rule will be needed.
When any test is made of the steering hydraulic system, the
hydraulic oil must be at the normal temperature for operation.
Sudden movement of the machine or pressure oil release
can cause injury to persons on or near the machine. To
prevent possible injury, do the procedure that follows
before testing and adjusting the steering hydraulic
Move the machine to a smooth horizontal location.
Move away from working machines and personnel.
Stop the engine.
Permit only one operator on the machine. Keep all
other personnel either away from the machine or in view
of the operator.
Move the steering wheel to all positions to release any
pressure in the hydraulic system.
Carefully loosen the filler cap on the hydraulic tank to
release any pressure in the tank.
Activate the parking brake.
During certain performance tests it will be
necessary to release the parking brake to help
drum movement when turns are required.
Make sure all hydraulic pressure is released before any
fitting, hose or component is loosened, tightened,
removed or adjusted.
The pressure in the system has now been released and
lines or components can be removed.
A visual inspection of the steering system and its components
is the first step when a diagnosis of a problem is made. Stop
the engine, make the following inspections.
Measure the oil level.
Look for air in the oil that is in the hydraulic tank. Do
this immediately after the machine is stopped. Use a
clear bottle or container to get a sample of the oil. Look
for air bubbles in the oil that is in the bottle.
Remove the hydraulic filter element and look for
particles removed from the oil by the filter element.
Check all oil lines and connections for damage.
Operation checks of the steering system can be used for a
diagnosis of poor performance and to find the source of oil
leakage inside the hydraulic system.
Problem: Steering pump makes noise and the steering
cylinder rods do not move smoothly.
Air in the steering hydraulic circuit.
The steering pump is worn.
Loose oil line connection on the inlet side of the steering
Low oil level in the hydraulic oil tank.
Viscosity of the hydraulic oil is wrong.