DETROIT DIESEL 53
The two-cycle diesel engines covered in this manual have the same bore and stroke and many of the major working parts
such as injectors, pistons, connecting rods, cylinder liners and other parts are interchangeable.
The In-line engines, including the inclined marine models, include standard accessories such as the blower, water pump,
governor and fuel pump, which, on some models, may be located on either side of the engine regardless of the direction
the crankshaft rotates. Further flexibility in meeting installation requirements is achieved with the cylinder head which can
be installed to accommodate the exhaust manifold on either side of the engine.
The V-type engines use many In-line engine parts, including the 3-53 and 4-53 cylinder heads. The blower is mounted on
top of the engine between the two banks of cylinders and is driven by the gear train. The governor is mounted on the rear
end of the 6V-53 -blower and on the front end of the 8V-53 blower.
The meaning of each digit in the model numbering system is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The letter L or R indicates left or
right-hand engine rotation as viewed from the front of the engine. The letter A, B, C or D designates the blower and
exhaust manifold location on the In-line engines as viewed from the rear of the engine while the letter A or C designates
the location of the oil cooler and starter on the V-type engines.
Each engine is equipped with an oil cooler (not required on certain two-cylinder models), full-flow oil filter, fuel oil
strainer and fuel oil filter, an air cleaner or silencer, governor, heat exchanger and raw water pump or fan and radiator,
and a starting motor.
Full pressure lubrication is- supplied to all main, connecting rod and camshaft bearings and to other moving parts. A
rotor-type pump on In-line or 6V engines or a gear-type pump on 8V engines draws oil from the oil pan through a screen
and delivers it to the oil filter. From the filter, the oil flows to the oil cooler and then enters a longitudinal oil gallery in the
cylinder block where the supply divides. Part of the oil goes to the camshaft bearings and up through the rocker arm
assemblies; the remainder of the oil goes to the main bearings and connecting rod bearings via the drilled oil passages in
Coolant is circulated through the engine by a centrifugal-type water pump. Heat is removed from the coolant, which
circulates in a closed system, by the heat exchanger or radiator. Control of the engine temperature is accomplished by
thermostat(s) which regulate the flow of the coolant within the cooling system.
Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the fuel strainer by a gear-type fuel pump. It is then forced through a filter and
into the fuel inlet manifold in the cylinder head(s) and to the injectors. Excess fuel is returned to the supply tank through
the fuel outlet manifold and connecting lines. Since the fuel is constantly circulating through the injectors, it serves to
cool the injectors and to carry off any air in the fuel system.
Air for scavenging and combustion is supplied by a blower which pumps air into the engine cylinders via the air box and
cylinder liner ports. All air entering the blower first passes through an air cleaner or silencer.
Engine starting is provided by either a hydraulic or electric starting system. The electric starting motor is energized by a
storage battery. A battery-charging generator, with a suitable voltage regulator, serves to keep the battery charged.
Engine speed is regulated by a mechanical or hydraulic type engine governor, depending upon the engine application.