Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications
The quality of fuel oil used for high-speed diesel engine
Detroit Diesel Allison designs, develops, and man-
ufactures commercial diesel engines to operate on die-
operation is a very important factor in obtaining
sel fuels classified by the ASTM as Designation
satisfactory engine performance, long engine life, and
D-975 (grades 1-D and 2-D). These grades are very sim-
ilar to grades DF-1 and DF-2 of Federal Specification
VV-F-800. Residual fuels and furnace oils, generally,
Fuel selected should be completely distilled material.
are not considered satisfactory for Detroit Diesel
Fuels marketed to meet Federal Specification VV-F-800
engines. In some regions, however, fuel suppliers may
(grades DF-1 and DF-2) and ASTM Designation
distribute one fuel that is marketed as either diesel fuel
D-975 (grades 1-D and 2-D) meet the completely dis-
(ASTM D-975) or domestic heating fuel (ASTM
tilled criteria. Some of the general properties of
D-396) sometimes identified as furnace oil. In this case,
VV-F-800 and ASTM D-975 fuels are shown below.
the fuel should be investigated to determine whether
the properties conform with those shown in the "FUEL
FEDERAL SPECIFICATION & ASTM
O I L SELECTION CHART" presented in this
DIESEL fUEL PROPERTIES
The "FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART" also will serve
as a guide in the selection of the proper fuel for various
applications. The fuels used must be clean, completely
distilled, stable, and noncorrosive. DISTILLATION
RANGE, CETANE NUMBER, and SULFUR CON-
TENT are three of the most important properties of
diesel fuels that must be controlled to insure optimum
and ambient temperature influence the selection of
fuels with respect to distillation range and cetane
number. The sulfur content of the fuel must be as low
as possible to avoid excessive deposit formation, pre-
mature wear, and to minimize the sulfur dioxide ex-
hausted into the atmosphere.
To assure that the fuel you use meets the required
roperties, enlist the aid or a reputable fuel oil supplier.
The responsibility for clean fuel lies with the fuel
supplier as well as the operator.
During cold weather engine operation, the cloud point
(the temperature at which wax crystals begin to form
in diesel fuel) should be 10°F (6°C) below the lowest
expected fuel temperature to prevent clogging of the
fuel filters by wax crystals.
Residual fuels and domestic furnace oils are not con-
At temperatures below 20°F (29°C), consult
ever, some may be acceptable. (See "DETROIT
an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison service outlet,
since particular attention must be given to the cooling
DIESEL FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS").
system, lubricating system, fuel system. electrical sys-
tem, and cold weather starting aids for efficient en-
NOTE: Detroit Diesel Allison does not rec-
gine starting and operation.
ommend the the of drained lubricating oil as a
diesel fuel off.
FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART
All diesel fuel oil contains a certain amount of sulfur.
Too high a sulfur content results in excessive cylinder
wear due to acid build-up in the lubricating oil. For
most satisfactory engine life, fuels containing less
than 0.5% sulfur should be used.
Storage tanks should be inspected regularly for dirt,
water or water-emulsion sludge, and cleaned if con-
NOTE: When prolonged idling periods or cold
taminated. Storage instability of the fuel can lead to
weather conditions below 32°F (0°C) are en-
the formation of varnish or sludge in the tank. The
countered, the use of lighter distillate fuels may be
more practical. The same consideration must be
made when operating at altitudes above 5,000 ft.
must be resolved with the fuel supplier.